(aktualisiert 09.02.2011)




  • Artikel 19 der UN-Menschenrechtserklärung 1948
  • Internet-Grundrechtcharta von Jeff Jarvis 2010
  • Hackerethics von Chaos Computer Club 2011
  • What is WikiLeaks 2011
  • Unabhängigkeitserklärung des Cyberspace 1996

Artikel 19 der UN-Menschenrechtserklärung 1948

Die Allgemeine Erklärung der Menschenrechte wurde am 10. Dezember 1948 von der UN-Generalversammlung beschlossen. Sie ist "das von allen Völkern und Nationen zu erreichende gemeinsame Ideal, damit jeder einzelne und alle Organe der Gesellschaft sich diese Erklärung stets gegenwärtig halten und sich bemühen, durch Unterricht und Erziehung die Achtung vor diesen Rechten und Freiheiten zu fördern und durch fortschreitende nationale und internationale Maßnahmen ihre allgemeine und tatsächliche Anerkennung und Einhaltung durch die Bevölkerung der Mitgliedstaaten selbst wie auch durch die Bevölkerung der ihrer Hoheitsgewalt unterstehenden Gebiete zu gewährleisten."


Artikel 19:

"Jeder hat das Recht auf Meinungsfreiheit und freie Meinungsäußerung; dieses Recht schließt die Freiheit ein, Meinungen ungehindert anzuhängen sowie über Medien jeder Art und ohne Rücksicht auf Grenzen Informationen und Gedankengut zu suchen, zu empfangen und zu verbreiten."

Grundrechtcharta von Jeff Jarvis 2010

Der amerikanische Journalismusprofessor Jeff Jarvis hat ein "Bill of Rights" aufgestellt und schreibt fundamentale Freiheiten auf:

  1. Recht auf Vernetzung
  2. Recht zu reden
  3. Recht auf unsere eigene Sprache
  4. Recht, uns zu versammeln
  5. Recht zu handeln
  6. Recht auf Kontrolle über unsere Daten
  7. Recht auf unsere eigene Identität
  8. Was öffentlich ist, ist ein öffentliches Gut
  9. Das Internet sollte offen sein

Hackerethics von Chaos Computer Club

Der Chaos Computer Club Hamburg fordert von Hackern die Beachtung folgender ethischer Grundsätze:


  1. Der Zugang zu Computern und allem, was einem zeigen kann, wie diese Welt funktioniert, sollte unbegrenzt und vollständig sein.
  2. Alle Informationen müssen frei sein.
  3. Mißtraue Autoritäten - fördere Dezentralisierung
  4. Beurteile einen Hacker nach dem, was er tut und nicht nach üblichen Kriterien wie Aussehen, Alter, Rasse, Geschlecht oder gesellschaftlicher Stellung.
  5. Man kann mit einem Computer Kunst und Schönheit schaffen.
  6. Computer können dein Leben zum Besseren verändern.
  7. Mülle nicht in den Daten anderer Leute.
  8. Öffentliche Daten nützen, private Daten schützen.

What is WikiLeaks?

Unter der Rubrik "About" schreibt WikiLeaks Anfang 2011 unter anderem:


"WikiLeaks is a not-for-profit media organisation. Our goal is to bring important news and information to the public. We provide an innovative, secure and anonymous way for sources to leak information to our journalists (our electronic drop box). One of our most important activities is to publish original source material alongside our news stories so readers and historians alike can see evidence of the truth. We are a young organisation that has grown very quickly, relying on a network of dedicated volunteers around the globe. Since 2007, when the organisation was officially launched, WikiLeaks has worked to report on and publish important information. We also develop and adapt technologies to support these activities.


WikiLeaks has sustained and triumphed against legal and political attacks designed to silence our publishing organisation, our journalists and our anonymous sources. The broader principles on which our work is based are the defence of freedom of speech and media publishing, the improvement of our common historical record and the support of the rights of all people to create new history. We derive these principles from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In particular, Article 19 inspires the work of our journalists and other volunteers. It states that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. We agree, and we seek to uphold this and the other Articles of the Declaration."

Unabhängigkeitserklärung von John Perry Barlow 1996

Der Hippie und Aktivist John Perry Barlow verkündete am 8. Februar 1996 beim Weltwirtschaftsforum in Davos die Unabhängigkeitserlärung des Cyberspaces:


"Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather.


We have no elected government, nor are we likely to have one, so I address you with no greater authority than that with which liberty itself always speaks. I declare the global social space we are building to be naturally independent of the tyrannies you seek to impose on us. You have no moral

right to rule us nor do you possess any methods of enforcement we have true reason to fear.


Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. You have neither solicited nor received ours. We did not invite you. You do not know us, nor do  you know our world. Cyberspace does not lie within your borders. Do not think that you can build it, as though it were a public construction project. You cannot. It is an act of nature and it grows itself through our collective actions.


You have not engaged in our great and gathering conversation, nor did you create the wealth of our marketplaces. You do not know our culture, our ethics, or the unwritten codes that already provide our society more order than could be obtained by any of your impositions.


You claim there are problems among us that you need to solve. You use this claim as an excuse to invade our precincts. Many of these problems don't exist. Where there are real conflicts, where there are wrongs, we will identify them and address them by our means. We are forming our own Social Contract . This governance will arise according to the conditions of our world, not yours. Our world is different.


Cyberspace consists of transactions, relationships, and thought itself, arrayed like a standing wave in the web of our communications.  Ours is a world that is both everywhere and nowhere, but it is not where bodies live.


We are creating a world that all may enter without privilege or prejudice accorded by race, economic power, military force, or station of birth.


We are creating a world where anyone, anywhere may express his or her beliefs, no matter how singular, without fear of being coerced into silence or conformity.


Your legal concepts of property, expression, identity, movement, and context do not apply to us. They are based on matter, There is no matter here.


Our identities have no bodies, so, unlike you, we cannot obtain order by physical coercion. We believe that from ethics, enlightened self-interest, and the commonweal, our governance will emerge . Our identities may be distributed across many of your jurisdictions. The only law that all our constituent cultures would generally recognize is the Golden Rule. We hope we will be able to build our particular solutions on that basis.  But we cannot accept the solutions you are attempting to impose.


In the United States, you have today created a law, the Telecommunications Reform Act, which repudiates your own Constitution and insults the dreams of Jefferson, Washington, Mill, Madison, DeToqueville, and Brandeis. These dreams must now be born anew in us.


You are terrified of your own children, since they are natives in a world where you will always be immigrants. Because you fear them, you entrust your bureaucracies with the parental responsibilities you are too cowardly to confront yourselves. In our world, all the sentiments and expressions of humanity, from the debasing to the angelic, are parts of a seamless whole, the global conversation of bits. We  cannot separate the air that chokes from the air upon which wings beat.


In China, Germany, France, Russia, Singapore, Italy and the United States, you are trying to ward off the virus of liberty by erecting guard posts at the frontiers of Cyberspace. These may keep out the contagion for a small time, but they will not work in a world that will soon be blanketed in bit-bearing media.


Your increasingly obsolete information industries would perpetuate themselves by proposing laws, in America and elsewhere, that claim to own speech itself throughout the world. These laws would declare ideas to be another industrial product, no more noble than pig iron. In our world, whatever the human mind may create can be reproduced and distributed infinitely at no cost. The global conveyance of thought no longer requires your factories to accomplish.


These increasingly hostile and colonial measures place us in the same position as those previous lovers of freedom and self-determination who had to reject the authorities of distant, uninformed powers. We must declare our virtual selves immune to your sovereignty, even as we continue to consent to your rule over our bodies. We will spread ourselves across the Planet so that no one can arrest our thoughts.


We will create a civilization of the Mind in Cyberspace. May it be more humane and fair than the world your governments have made before."